1. Nanhua villiage
In 1915, more than 300 anti-Japanese martyrs including Yu Qing-fang and Jiang Ding attacked Japanese police and burnt the Nanzhuang police station (i.e. today's Nanhua Police Station) administered under Jiaobanian Sub prefecture. Soon after, they led thousands of high-minded persons to carry out large-scale attack against the Japanese police of Jiaobanian Sub prefecture (today's Yujing Police Station) in the early morning. Japanese troops were already alerted and they attacked the battlefield of high-minded persons with cannons. Surrounded by fire, thousands of innocent compatriots were slaughtered. They were brutal, cruel and violent.
The former Taiwan County Government learned that the historic site of national morale would disappear, so it built the Tower of Loyal Souls in Nanhua to worship the skeletons of the high-minded persons. A monument was also established in front of Nanhua Police Station. Today it has been moved to First Cemetery in Nanhua Village, Nanhua District.
Jiaobanian incident in the period of Japanese occupation was a deed that cannot be undone in Taiwan's at-Japanese history. In addition, the fire attack of the police station in Nanhua Village was precisely the flash point, which led to Japanese large-scale attack against the anti-Japanese martyrs. Nanhua Village can perhaps be named as the main battlefield of Jiaobanian incident. The historical facts that are now left contribute just enough memories for future generations to cherish.
2. Xiaolun Village
At the time, Nanhua's economy was flagging. Crops being grown included turmeric, longan, and ramie and so on, and people must carry them on a shoulder pole and walk to Xinhua and Qishan to have them sold. "Mirror" is located in Qiongzibu. The origin of the name was that it was said that there were a big mirror and a small mirror. Spanning on them was a large banyan tree. To go from big mirror to small mirror, one did not need to cross the river. Simply go pass via the banyan tree. Hearsay claimed that the side towards which the banyan leans is the one that will become more prosperous. Every 1st and 15th of each lunar month someone would ride a horse to gallop on the mirror. Later the banyan was cut down.
3. Donghe Village
There used to be a village chief, an umbrella tree, 18 plows and 18 cattle bears in Xinzailiao, Donghe Village. Previously fishing vessels of Anping Harbor relied on for direction. A person said that the ploughs are to be sawed, but none of them was sawed. Because of this, Xinzailiao Village was somehow ruined. The location of Xinzailiao is somewhere between Taisan Highway and Xiwei.
There are 18 ploughs and 18 cattle bears on umbrella tree. Previously boats relied on the guidance of these 18 lanterns to sail into the port (Anping Harbor). Later, someone cut down the umbrella tree, and the 18 lanterns broken, and the man who cut down the tree did not go far before he died. When the umbrella tree was still there, Xinzailiao was a very prosperous place. There was even an imperial decree tablet, upon reaching, which, officials were required dismount. When the sun was out, the shade casted by the umbrella tree covered very faraway places. Under the tree, there were stone Goddess of Mercy, stone tigers, stone lions, and two stone mills. Speaking of Wushan, there were many agricultural products, including ramie, turmeric, phyllostachys makinoi, tomato, longan, wax apple, etc.. At that time, the rich lived in Wushan.
4. Xipu Village
The development of Xipu Village started with Fanzi House. It was said that it was really the place where Fanzi (plains aborigines) lived. The family who first came to Xipu Village to open up the virgin land was the Huang family, and it was probably one to two hundred years ago. The first house of the Huang family was in Dawan, and the others were in Xipu and Zuozhen. These are recorded on a stone tablet under the paramita tree. In the early days when they began to open up the virgin land, the labor system used was as follows: Baojia workers- one person per household; voluntary labor; general mobilization, which means everyone is mobilized; and Fangban workers, used when people help one another with their private jobs. People were so poor in the past that they would work for others just to get a meal. Previously, the Huang family was fairly large in Xipu. Except for them, there were also quite a lot of people in the Li family. The Huang family owned some lands. In addition, there is an old banyan in Zhutouqi, and it has been there for perhaps nearly one hundred years. After the restoration of Taiwan, mostly planted were sugarcanes, and at places around Kengkou, people mostly plant turmeric and ramie.
In the past, Nanhua had wood, which was imported from Houjue. Wealthy people lived in Houjue. Trades in Xipu mostly ended up in Zuozhen because of the vicinity.
"Xinnan Sugar Factory" was originally called "Nanhua Sugar Factory." After being one term of chief, Hung Jyan intended to set up a sugar factory and called for people to become a shareholder. Each share cost NTD 20. Originally, the factory was to be set up under the banyan, but the chief then, Zhan Neng-an, did not agree. Therefore, they wanted to set it up in Xiaolunwei (located in the Xiaolun Village). The machines had been delivered, but because of the lack of water supply, the factory could not be set up. One year passed without any action and they went to Qixia (Qizijiao in Xipu Village). The plan to set up the sugar factory had been delayed again and again, and could not proceed smoothly. Had they been able to implement according to plan, the factory probably would not have to end up being auctioned. In the end, it was back under the banyan. Someone stopped, but Li Chuan-chi egged Hung Jyan on to set it up there. It was completed in 1949 and began operating officially. However, due to the high cost and the inadequate capital, it was sold to a Hsinchu citizen, Yang Liang, in 1952. After buying it, Yang Liang renamed it as "Xinnan Sugar Factory" using the initial character of Hsinchu and Nanhua. As for the transport of sugarcanes, there was a sugar railway that reached Nanhua.
During the Japanese Occupation, railway between Shanhua and Nanhua were set up to transport the sugarcanes to Shanhua Sugar Factory, and the owner of the sugarcanes could take a ride to Shanhua as well.
The reason why Sanjietan built temple was that both Nanhua and Xipu intended to build a temple. The home affairs administrator in Nanhua thought that Nanhua had a larger area, so he wanted villagers of Xipu to build Nanhua's Matsu Temple jointly with them. However, poe divination carried out by the villagers of Xipu asking when Sanjiegong arrived at Xipu indicated that it arrived during Emperor Kangxi's rule. The words inscribed on the incense burner stated, "made between 1426 and 1435. Therefore, Xipu's home affairs administrator thought that Xipu's god is older, and asked Nanhua's villagers to build jointly with them as well.
Then, it was decided that they would build their own temples, which was why Xipu's villagers were convened to build the temple jointly. At first, they built with bamboos, then they used clods, but it fell. Therefore, they used bricks instead to build it, which is the building that we see nowadays.
5. Zhongkeng Village
The earliest cultivated areas in Zhongkeng Village were scattered. The surname with the largest population was Li, who lived in Shanweiliao when they first moved here. The Qian family on the other hand, moved in from Shanwei. The banyan in Zhongkeng is over 200 years old and is located in Shanwei (3rd Neighborhood), Zhonglin Village. There are no other old trees or monument tablets in Zhongkeng. However, the terrain in Zhongkeng changed as the course of the river straightened. Previously it was said that the more curved a terrain is, the more able persons it produces. It belonged to the third Bao in Japanese occupation period. Home affairs administrators were elected; Nanhua (first Bao); Xiaolun (second Bao), Zhongkeng (third Bao); they used to be Beiping (the parcel number was the same as Zhongkeng Section), Donghe, Xipu, Beiliao, Yushan, Guanshan, and these were in a different order than they are now. Japan's reign is different from the one now. When Zhan Neng-an was in charge, he launched town establishment with woods conservation. Later, there was electricity, so people did not have to light up lamps as they did during the Japanese rule. Material life was greatly improved, making it much more convenient. Hung Jyan was the one then. He was the greatest person in Zhongkeng. The home of the home affairs administrator was the civil service office. There were more Hong supporters in areas around Zhongkeng, Beiping, Yushan, and Beiliao. Zhan was responsible for the management of Nanhua, Xiaolun, and Donghe.
The sugar railway passed through Shanhua Sugar factory then. TSC's sugar railway railroad passed through the front furnace (Nantian Temple in Zhongkeng Village). There was also a railroad there. The bridge pier of Renyang Bridge was originally the piers of the railroad. In the early days, one must walk to get to Zuozhen and Xinhua. One could catch push cars in Zuozhen, but there were no coaches yet. It was called, "Xinhua Railway Inc." The old Nanhua route started from the chicken farm and the exit was at the sports field of Nanhua Elementary School, allowing exit from the pigpen.
How Nanhua came to have electricity. Previously, township owned land was provided for each village to grow acacia. Afforestation inspectors were also appointed. There was a land of 40 hectares in Shanweiliao, and a land of 20 hectares in Nanhua. The money earned by selling acacia was used to connect the village with electricity. After harvesting, people must begin planting acacia again. However, the citizens also occupied the land to grow cassava, which caused lawsuits. Later, the National Property Bureau recovered the lands. The saying, "Zhongtan marshal in Xinan; Xuantian God in Xibei": Zhongtan marshal in Xinan should be referring to somewhere around Jianshan (located in Beiping Village).
6. Beiping Village
The place name, originally Banpingqiao, was changed to Beiping after Taiwan's restoration and means north of Nanhua District.
The origin of the saying, "Zhongtan marshal in Xinan; Xuantian God in Xibei": There are 36 temples in Yujing District and Nanhua District. Xinan is led by Zhongtan marshal and Xibei is led by Xuantian God. Xinan and Xibei are bounded by Beiliao River (i.e. Houjue River). There is a monument in the temple here. However, it is not the original one as it was burnt by fire in 1915.
The legend of "centipede's hole" said that a flagpole was erected, leading to the defeat of centipede's hole. The Thunder God broke the flagpole. It is said that when the weather was bad, the centipede would climb up the flagpole, hence the name. In addition to the centipede's hole, there are three other holes nearby, including frog's hole and snake's hole.
"Wangziweishan": Once there was Wang Chi-shun (some say Wang Chi-shun), who was a citizen of Tainan. He came to Nanhua from Tainan and bought a mountain. He was commonly known as Wangziweishan and no one knew that his real name was called Wang Chi-shun. Everyone called him Wangziwei.
The most popular product of Nanhua was sugarcane. At first, they were delivered to Qiaotou Sugar Factory with trucks. Then they were delivered to Shanhua Sugar Factory. After the railroad between Shanhua Sugar Factory and Nanhua Elementary School was built (the route of the railroad is still there) they used narrow gauge trains to transport. During the Second World War, the railroad was removed and shipped to the Philippines. Beiliao's sugarcanes were shipped to Yujing Sugar Factory and Xidong's were shipped to Hsitungpu.
What is rather special about Beiping District now is that the learning area is divided into three elementary schools, which are Nanbei, Beiliao, and Xipu. School-age children can go to schools nearest to them.
7. Beiliao Village
Nanliao and Beiliao were so named because both places have lumber mills, and the one in Nanliao is larger. So Nanliao used to be larger than Beiliao and had a larger population. It was said that the women in Nanliao were too atrocious. When men crossed the river with thatches on their back, they wore only underwear for the convenience. The women who were washing clothes by the river chased and hit them with laundry sticks. In retaliation, someone spread the blood of black dogs on the eyes of Earth God Temple's tiger. Since then, Nanliao gradually declined and only about twenty families live there.
The Temple in Nanliao - Nanliao temple has a monument, which should be a hundred years old. Beian temple also has a monument. Wen Wen-yuan heard that there was a thunderstone in Yanshuikeng. Legend has it that when the stone was about to turn into a demon, a woman would appear on the rock at nightfall. It is said in folktales that when the Thunder God knew about it, he smashed the stone!
At the time, the village planted mostly sugarcanes, which were shipped to Yujing Sugar Factory by train. The railroad was built in Yuli and Yanshuikeng. It was called "Showa Sugar." There used to be an oil field in Yiliaojiao. Folklore says that the Earth God appeared in people's dreams saying that many oil fields could be dug out. However, the Japanese did not believe in such thing, and the oil field disappeared. Later it was moved the place mentioned just now. The original place was filled, but in bad weather, it gushes. On 6th July in the year when Taiwan was restored, oil gushed from the well continuously. Oil pipe was connected to the pithead, ready to be shipped to Kaohsiung refinery by narrow gauge trains. However, it kept gushing even though it was full, so people had to plug the wellhead with orang-earth. Later when people dug it again, there was no more oil inside. The reason for paving the road was to produce "black smoke" for industrial use with the natural gas that cannot be used up and transport them down here. Previously there was a gigantic black smoke factory. Southern Cross-Island Highway: Veterans first opened it up manually, and a stone tablet was erected to thank the veterans' efforts.
The school in the Japanese occupation period was called "Beiliao Campus." It was the campus of Nanhua Public School. The students were not so young. There used to be 36 chiefs in the four districts and towns, Yujing, Nanxi, Zuozhen, and Nanhua. Originally, the 4 townships agreed to march the village together. Nanzhuang withdrew on short notice, but wanted to march the village by itself later without informing the spirit medium. Only when they reached Marshal Temple and failed to pass did they ask the spirit medium to come and solve the problem. During Japanese Occupation period, Japanese asked all the Gods to go to Xiaoli so that they could burn them in bulk. It was a Japanese, the director at that time, who came forward to say that they must not burn them. This is why there are so many gods in Yujing's Sandiye Temple. It was said that the court of Beiangong Temple was the tongue of the cow at Niujiaoling. There was some curcumin growing under the mango tree beside the temple. They were cut off at night but grew back the next day. The Longmu Well here used to be the eyes of the cow. There used to be two mountains behind Niujiaoling. It was said that those were the testicles of the cow. As the cow was in heat, Thunder God castrated it. The two mountains then crumbled. Our cemetery is called, "Seven Stars Born." One after another mountain descended starting from Youkuang Mountain. When the row ends here, there are just seven mountains. A Liao family wanted to create a feng shui using the ideal geographical site, which is surrounded by three mountains, Zhong, Gu, and Jing Mountains. Folklore had it that Diyegong God appeared in their dreams saying that he hoped the site could be used to build temple, and that he would protect the family so that they would have good children and grandchildren. However, they did not obey his will and as a result, could not bear the blessed site and their descendants did not enjoy safe and smooth fortune. Originally, the Beiji Temple in Yujing was to be built in Beiliao. During the August 7th flood, Houjuezi River destroyed many villages. Because of its various terrain, there were different levels of disasters and losses in Nanhua Township. The main damages included the damage of crops. Only the downhill areas were flooded. Donghe Village and Nanhua Village, for example, were not affected much. It was so serious in Beiliao Village because of its location and its terrain.
8. Yushan Village
Yushan is somewhere around Gaoping. There is a ravine between two mountains. To facilitate access, a stone bridge was built, and it was called Qianrikan. The terrain here is easily defensible. Previously, when people were fighting against Japanese, all the Japanese soldiers who climbed up were poked and fell. It was said that the blood had tinged the river. Later, someone leaked the secret and led Japanese soldiers up the mountain using another route, which led to their conquering of the place. The stone bridge is still here. There used to be a lot of stone house in the mountain. They were probably lived by the aborigines. There used to be a "fire station" in the mountain. The high platform was used to inspect if there was any fire nearby. The stone houses built in the past could accommodate many people. Later, the earth kept accumulating and the space decreased. Now it seemed much smaller.
"Zhutouqi": In 1864, Taiwan suffered from pirates' robbery at Haikou and aborigines hunting for human heads in the mountains. Too many Hans were killed, and some of them were robbed. There were too few Hans in Taiwan, and they must emigrate from China. Therefore, Emperor Tongzhi sent tens of thousands of immigrants to Taiwan. They disembarked at Sicao in Luermen and followed the river to Madou and Xinshi, where people lived. They settled down around Zhutouqi. There is a household with the surname of Chen. Their ancestors came from Anxi County, Fujian Province, and they are the sixth generation of the family. There is a household with the surname,Chang, and another one with the surname, Lu, in Ailiaojiao. There is a Hu family around Fengshan Temple; a Chang family in Maopu; and a Chiu and a Jiang family in Jianghuangkeng. Zhutouqi was originally called, "Qiedonghu," but as people how lived in this area were scattered, just like zhutou (i.e. subterranean stem, or literally, bamboo head), and there was a steep slope nearby, which was why it was named Zhutouqi.
There is a bischofia javanica entangled with a longan tree in Yushan. It is said that when it was forbidden to worship the gods during Japanese Occupation period, someone secretly put the gods into the hole of bischofia javanica. In the early days, people grew sweet potatoes. They could also bake dried longan. They carried these on a shoulder pole to sell in the prefectural city in winters. Each side of the pole weighed 25 kg. One pole weighed 51 kg. One pole of dried longan was sold for 1 Dragon Silver Dollar. On the return journey, they carried necessities such as rice and salt back. Now that the road has been opened up, the economy has been improving gradually.
"Tripod covering tripod" refers to the story that happened in the Qing dynasty. Taiwan's governor gave notice to the emperor of Qing dynasty about the hearsay of an Allah (emperor) to be born in Taiwan and hoped that the emperor would send a fortuneteller to have a check immediately. Having heard that, the emperor intended to send someone. However, that person must pass a test first. He asked the person to be in charge of a case. A person who stole eggs to eat was mixed in the crowd. He was tactful and caught the person, which proved that he was competent. So he was sent to Taiwan. Then the emperor sent a fortuneteller called Hsiao Ming-chiang "to come to Taiwan to look around and walk around (mai mai)." However, Hsiao Chiang misheard and mistook it as "go to Taiwan to look around and worship around (bai bai)." Therefore, he started worshipping from Haikou to Zhutouqi and discovered that there was a Banjo Cave, from which the mother of an emperor would be born. So he filled a tripod with oil and lighted seven wicks. He held charms and recited incantations, and then he covered it with another tripod for the purpose of burning the string of the banjo in Banjo Cave. Hence the name "tripod covering tripod." After worshiping Banjo Cave, the mother of the emperor who was going to be born turned into the birth of Jiang Ding. Jiang Ding was from Yiliaojiao, Zhutouqi.
Two people in Zhutouqi became gods and were the subjects of worship. One was Jiang Ding, whose temple is in Yujing, and another one was Chen Ching-chu, who is the Thousand Years of the Chen House in Madou. He went hunting in Guanshan wearing sandals and carrying a bow knife. He hunted a muntiacus reevesi and carried it on his back. When he waded through a river, he was washed away due to the fast-flowing water. When he flowed to Madou, he thought that Madou's geographical position was great, so he hovered there. Locals scooped up his corpse and placed it under a banyan. Because of traffic inconvenience, it took a lot of time for his family to found him. Therefore, his corpse remained under the tree. It then absorbed the essence of sun and moon and became immortal. Locals built a small temple for him. When Dajiale (gambling name) was popular, the small temple was known for its incredibly accurate guesses. So they built a larger temple. Then there was Liuhecai (gambling name), and it did not provide such accurate guesses, so it was burnt down. It has been renovated now. There was a shrine in Yushan, but its scale was not too big. It was destroyed later.
Previously when the ancestors came from China, to bless themselves a safe journey through the black ditch, some people brought incense with them, some gods from their hometown, such as the Shengwang here, which was brought along by the Wen family. They originally worshipped in their own houses, but then all the gods were put together in a public temple that was built and everyone worshipped them together.
The Baoshengdadi in Yushan caught thief. There was a cow, which was taking away by a thief. Upon reaching Nanzijiao, the cow would not be moved no matter how. Now the medium of Baoshengdadi started being possessed and said that a thief had taken the cow away to Nanzijiao. People went there and they did catch the thief.
9. Guanshan Village
There are more than a thousand households here, and it still has the ruins of a city, which are the four gates. It is surrounded by bamboo forest as a shelter. The reason why the village was uninhabited was that people from Xidong used to come here often to make trouble. People here once revolted, but they were afraid of getting revenge, so they left and the village became inhabited. Before the residents of today came, it was completely unoccupied. Before that, many people used to live here. All the stories about this place are told by the elders in Xidong to the residents now. They usually grow sweet potatoes and rice and people used to adopt the "fangban" method. There was no shop, so all the everyday essentials were sold by people who came here carrying poles of groceries to sell.
In 1915, the anti-Japanese celebrity, Jiang Ding, trained high-minded persons at Houjuezi in the village. Using it as the base, they cut the mountain and farmed to be self-reliant. However, because of this, the Japanese government, after the massacre of this event, forced the original residents to move out. The original residents only moved back gradually years later when it was peaceful (records of original residents moving in only began around 1933). Everything was ragged and people struggled to survive, which was the start of a settlement.
Guanshan became the anti-Japanese base of the high-minded person because of its advantageous terrain. There was a stamp and people discovered many opium boxes. In 1940s, Japanese government encouraged opening up virgin land. Another reason was that probably it was because of the simple life here. One could grow their own vegetables and rice. There were fish in the river, too. Moreover, as the economy was heavily regulated, living here actually provided more freedom.
In 1938, the Japanese government finally agreed that the people living here could be registered. There were only 12 households and they all lived in poverty. They took shelter in thatch huts temporarily. The road to Guanshan was dangerous. It was barren and there were lots of miasma. No people went. Therefore, it was a lot harder for people to open the virgin land and live here. At first, they grew rice, but it did not grow well. So the loss was huge. However, the original residents were not frustrated. They kept trying through trials and errors until the third year after the opening up, they had meagre harvest, which provided them just enough food temporarily. Then they tried growing other crops, such as sweet potatoes, mangoes and bamboo shoots. After years of cultivating, they could finally be self-reliant. Therefore, although it was inaccessible, it served as a refuge. There was a doctor who was drawn to serve in the Japanese army. He did not want to go, so he came to live here.
After the restoration of Taiwan, the residents of Guanshan Village did not go to the city to register their land due to the traffic inconvenience. Therefore, the lands that were not registered were taken and owned by the State Property Agency and the Forestry Bureau. Although the original residents followed their old pattern of life and kept on growing crops, none of them were titled to the land. In 1960, the original residents formally entered into a contract to lease the land to farm. Having leased the land for over 3 decades, they never say anything about "public land release." The first generation of original residents cantoned and reclaimed the barren lands of Guanshan, and up until today, more than 6 decades have passed. Despite the residents' efforts to reclaim the land, they still did not get to own the result of reclamation in the end, and could not satisfy their descendants. Looking back at the decades of hardship, it makes people feel helpless and hopeless. Guanshan's residents decided to come forward formally for their own interests, requesting for public land release. They recruited and set up self-help association in hope of illuminating future generations, and even attract outflowing youths and students back to their hometown to knuckle down for this land, this village in joint efforts. In 1974, electricity was supplied. Regarding transportation, in 1978, the old road was paved. The Country road no. 179 became the main road connecting Guanshan Village to the outside. Only then were they more able to be in contact with the outside world. Prior to that, villagers had to travel over mountains and rivers to run affairs in Nanhua Village or to do business in Yiying. The poor transport system also caused educational issues. Interview, Chiu Fang-hsun (moved here from Meishan Township, Chiayi County) lived in a time when none of the villagers received education. Their children are sent to Beiliao Elementary School to receive education, and they have to live in the school dormitory. There are also some ancient tombs, which date back to a time between 1821 and 1850. "Diemazi" (a place name) was so named because a Japanese riding a horse fell to his death there.
Guanshan Village encompasses Houjuezi, Houjuexi, Chengzinei, Beishiyan, Fengzilun, Heshuizi, Daqiu, Pingkengzi, Chuhuozi, Shuanglianjue, Guizitou, Wanqiu, Chuziliaokeng, Muguakeng, Shichunjiu, Gongtian, Chouerrenzipu, Huoshaosheliao, and Shuijing. The village is located somewhere between 250 and 900 meters, and the areas included are mainly hills and slopes surrounded by mountains. The terrain is full of dangers, obstacles, and rolling hills. One of the main peaks of Dawushan ridge, known as West Alishanquan, has an elevation of 973 meters. As shale forms the fault zone rock here, a wide variety of topography is found within this area. The mountain walls on both sides of Houjue River are scoured by river and rainwater, making up a precipitous topography. The canyon stretches through the whole village (including Shiping Valley, Dadi Valley, Taiyang Valley, and more). The canyon of Houjue River cutting through the tail end of the mountain of Alishan range creates such landscape. The place, as mentioned in "Records of Taiwan," has celestial ladders made of stone stacks and pretty clouds containing mist of miasma. This shows how primitive and rough it has always been since its oldest days.